Seeking New Challenges in Earth Remote Sensing
Currently Available for New Employment

Current Location: Los Angeles, CA



I seek new challenges and adventures in passive or active microwave, infrared, or optical earth remote sensing that enable continued development my wide range of interests and high-level skills in physics, supporting mathematics, and systems engineering. I look forward to finding these in an environment where growth and cross-pollination are possible, the talent is diverse, and professional development is encouraged and valued.


I am experienced and highly motivated in the following areas: remote sensing physics and forward model development; algorithm development and testing, and sensor and algorithms requirements flowdown; conceptual design and modeling/simulation for new sensors; on-orbit calibration and detailed analyses and diagnosis of sensor measurement anomalies; astronomical imaging, detection systems and algorithms; discovery and statistical analysis of rare astronomical objects. I also maintain interests in science and environmental policy.


My greatest strength is my methodology for approaching problems, which combines my abilities for rapid study, locating and querying the experts, grasping the phenomenology, and free thinking, with my background in experimental physics and its application to diverse fields. I am very detail oriented. Throughout the past 15 years, I have excelled at: remote sensing physics, sensor measurement simulation, and innovative approaches to geophysical retrieval algorithms; sensor and algorithms error analyses, budget construction, and requirements development; connecting sensor performance to geophysical retrieval algorithm performance; calibration analyses; statistical analyses; technical writing and presentations; rapid startup of new projects; working as a team with diverse corporate and research cultures; coordinating interdependent performance analyses across numerous university, industry, and government laboratory groups; addressing customer concerns and ensuring customer satisfaction.


2012: Development of innovative techniques for identifying and quantifying sensor errors from on-orbit brightness temperature measurements of cross-track microwave radiometers (e.g. ATMS).

2008-2010: Performance Lead for Microwave Imager/Sounder (MIS) Algorithm Performance Team, National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Systems (NPOESS) Program Office.

2007: Development of MIS Conceptual Model, and use in performing trade studies on radiometer antenna configuration, and in deriving MIS sensor and ocean algorithm performance requirements.

2006: Theoretical discovery and verification of--and development of mitigation methods for--the "Shadowing Effect," a previously unexplained spurious signal seen in polarimetric microwave remote sensing.

2005: Analysis showing that standard on-orbit calibration methods can remove most of the effect of cross-polarization bias errors in third and fourth Stokes radiometer measurements; enables relaxation of cross-polarization error requirements from challenging, heritage values.

2004: Development of ultra-fast microwave ocean wind vector retrieval algorithm that enables demonstration of polarimetric microwave radiometer capabilities prior to completion of on-orbit calibration. (Algorithm is insensitive to static linear and quadratic errors and cross-polarization in measured brightness temperatures.)

2001: Principal author, Ocean Algorithm Suite Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, for Boeing Conical Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS).

1999: Derivation and publication, for Boeing CMIS Team, of expressions for fully polarimetric antenna cross-polarization matrix in terms of antenna measurements.

1998: Development of first complete, physically based, ocean wind vector retrieval algorithm for polarimetric microwave radiometers.


Individual Achievement Award, The Aerospace Corporation, 2008
"For contributions to the NPOESS Microwave Imager Sounder essential to obtaining highly-accurate wind direction measurements."



Ph.D. Physics, University of California, Berkeley, 1994
Dissertation: "Supernova Rates for the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search Using V and R Band Light Curves"
Advisor: Prof. Richard A. Muller
A.B. Physics and Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, 1983


Engineering Specialist, Level II, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA, 2004-2012

  • Conical Scanning Microwave Imager Sounder (CMIS), 2004-2006:
  • CMIS Oversight: Reviewed and monitored progress on Boeing antenna and receiver subsystems, and performance of ocean Environmental Data Record (EDR, i.e. retrieved geophysical parameter) algorithms. Worked with Antenna Systems Department to develop alternate expressions for fully polarimetric antenna cross-polarization matrix (Mueller Matrix or "M-matrix") that gave a more intuitive framework for computing the M-matrix from far-field antenna patterns and highlighted geometric factors. Gave day-long tutorial to Boeing engineering staff on computation of M-matrix, and transformations necessary to put M-matrix in the form needed for cross-polarization correction in Sensor Data Record (SDR) algorithm. Developed software for computation of M-matrix from antenna range measurements in the two most common far-field conventions; coupled with simulated CMIS antenna patterns to perform sensitivity analyses of M-matrix error to nadir angle variation, and pattern extent and angular resolution.

  • Discovery of Shadowing Effect: Built upon M-matrix code to develop brightness temperature measurement simulation of scanning an offset parabolic reflector antenna over earth scenes; discovered spurious signals in third and fourth Stokes parameter measurements over rain cell, cloud, and coastal boundaries ("Shadowing Effect") that can degrade wind vector retrieval. Identified the different mechanisms that result third and fourth Stokes shadowing, and estimated size of spurious signals for various earth scenes; compared with WindSat data to validate theory. Determined both hardware mitigation and SDR algorithm correction methods for fourth Stokes shadowing; showed that third Stokes shadowing effect cannot be easily mitigated or corrected. Developed briefings for CMIS sensor and algorithm contractors and conference papers on shadowing effect and mitigation/correction methods.
  • Microwave Imager/Sounder (MIS), 2006-2010:
  • MIS Definition: Worked with Tecolote Corporation on cost estimation for 7 MIS options differing in reflector size and channelization (review, debug, and refine cost estimation process, assist in development of cost briefing). Roughly estimated EDR performance for each option with NPOESS program office personnel. Developed initial EDR accuracy, swath width, and retrieval cell size requirements for draft MIS Algorithm and System Specifications, using Acquisition Decision Memorandum and other government direction, and legacy and heritage radiometer requirements and performance.

  • MIS Conceptual Model and Conceptual (Point) Design: Co-developed, with Antenna Systems Department, an MIS Conceptual Model consisting of: (1) a complete GRASP electromagnetic model of the MIS antenna (based on modification of WindSat antenna to accommodate sounding channel feeds and maximize forward swath) and local NPOESS bus geometry; (2) code to transform GRASP results into scan geometry (footprint sizes, scan arc radii, measurement swath width)—and compute integration times based on WindSat oversampling rates—as a function of antenna boresight nadir angle; and (3) code to compute radiometer noise (NEDTs) from integration times, bandpasses, and noise figures for receiver mock-ups we developed. Optimized feed placement to maximize swath width without degrading radiometric performance and spatial resolution. Leveraged resources of MIS Performance Team ("MPT" from U. Colorado, U. Mich., U. of A. Huntsville, Naval Research Lab) to (1) develop Backus-Gilbert resampling for computation of EDR swath width and noise reduction factors (NRFs) given scan geometry and retrieval cell sizes, and (2) determine ocean EDR performance from NEDTs and NRFs. Used Conceptual Model to finalize MIS Conceptual Design: utilizing all resources above, conducted an iterative trade on boresight nadir angle to meet legacy EDR swath width requirements for ocean wind and sounding EDRs, while exceeding legacy accuracy and cell size requirements for legacy EDRs, and providing acceptable performance for other EDRs.

  • MIS Requirements Development : Used MIS Conceptual Design results to define channel bandpass, footprint size, measurement swath width, sampling interval, and NEDT requirements for MIS System and Sensor Specifications, and to revise EDR swath width and accuracy requirements for non-legacy EDRs in the Algorithm and System Specifications. Based on previous work on CMIS and requirements for WindSat, developed MIS requirements for antenna cross-polarization, polarization rotation angle (PRA), and Earth incidence angle (EIA) control and knowledge errors for System and Sensor Specifications. Derived requirements for sensor roll/pitch/yaw knowledge error from PRA/EIA knowledge error and mapping uncertainty requirements. Authored significant sections of System, Sensor, and Algorithm Specifications. Performed quarterly side-by-side reviews of all MIS Specification Documents and developed "issues lists" for iterative adjudication with program office personnel. Reviewer on selection team for MIS Sensor Contractor.

  • MIS Development (MIS Performance Lead): Provided linkage between sensor performance and EDR performance; ensured that if the sensor met its requirements, the EDRs met their requirements. Developed and maintained MIS Sensor Parameter Data Workbook (SPDW) to provide data and methodology for MPT simulation of MIS brightness temperature measurements, including important sensor errors (effective NEDTs, center frequency stability, etc.). Developed and maintained MIS Scan Geometry and Compositing Workbook, with all data necessary for determination of compositing performance (NRFs and spatial fit error). Managed MPT in resampling and EDR performance estimation, sensor and algorithm trade studies, and evaluation of contractor’s proposed changes to sensor requirements. Developed EDR error budgets. Negotiated sensor requirements additions with sensor contractor, providing specific rationale based on EDR and resampling algorithm needs. Reviewer on selection team for MIS Operational Algorithm Development Team (ADT). Initialized ADT work on algorithm development and performance estimation through introduction of SPDW. Attended all sensor and algorithm technical reviews, and prepared briefings for MPT, ADT, and higher level meetings.
  • Feasibility Study for an IR Night-vision Sensor, 2011:
  • Development of Night-time OH Airglow Latitude and Seasonal Climatology: Generate latitude/seasonal emission layer to ground transmission spectra "climatology" for 1-2 micron wavelengths using MODTRAN runs on model atmospheres. Derive and compute integrals for converting OH airglow nadir specific intensity to horizontal ground flux (including off-nadir geometrical enhancement factor) as a function of atmospheric transmission and sky view half-cone angle. Determine 1-2 micron no-atmosphere nadir specific intensity spectrum using airglow spectra measured at specific location and time, and MODTRAN runs with variable columnar water vapor, by approximately matching theoretical no-atmosphere specific intensity spectra. Scale no-atmosphere nadir specific intensity spectrum to latitude bands and seasonal bins using published results for the on-orbit SABER IR radiometer (Gao, et al., 2010). Convert no-atmosphere nadir specific intensity spectrum climatology to horizontal ground flux spectrum climatology using results of transmission spectra climatology and conversion factors described above. Develop a detailed 90 minute presentation on OH airglow phenomenology and derivation of ground flux climatology. Work with technical staff in Electro-Optical Sensors Department to ensure that climatology results were used correctly in sensor models.
  • Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), 2011-2012:
  • Radiometric Implications of Polarization Rotation Angle Knowledge Error: At the request of JPSS program office, determined 88 and 183 GHz brightness temperature measurement error resulting from polarization rotation angle (PRA) knowledge error of 88 and 183 GHz polarization grids. Developed rudimentary no-cloud over-ocean brightness temperature (TB) model function for 88.2 and 183.31 +/- 7 GHz channels as a function of sea surface temperature and columnar water vapor. For columnar water vapor levels spanning sub-arctic to tropical oceans, computed TBs with and without PRA error for each scan position. Produced summary of findings, indicating significant TB error over last 40% of scan (sufficient to exceed TB accuracy error requirement) for all but tropical scenes. Resulted in direction from JPSS program office to sensor contractor to improve antenna range and antenna testing procedure. Along-scan TB error signature at 88.2 GHz indicated that existing PRA error in on-orbit NPP ATMS could be identified and quantified using long-term scan position by scan position averages of highly filtered over-ocean TBs.

  • Identification and Quantification of ATMS Sensor Errors Through On-Orbit Along-Scan TB Error Signatures: Developed additional sensor error models for antenna cross-polarization, sensor roll and pitch, scan drive error, and receiver non-linearity, and coupled with 88.2 GHz TB simulator to determine along-scan TB error signatures of each of these sensor errors. Found that each signature is sufficiently distinct to be able to identify and perhaps quantify the major contributors to on-orbit TB error for NPP ATMS. Obtained funding from JPSS program office, and directed effort to derive total TB error along-scan signature for NPP ATMS: development of software for matchups between ATMS TBs and NCEP FNL ocean and atmospheric parameters; filtering for no-cloud, over-ocean, low wind speed scenes in incremental water vapor bins; scan position by scan position averaging of several months of TBs in each bin, and subtraction of TBs simulated from matchup data).
  • Scientist II, Computational Physics, Inc., Springfield, VA, 2001-2004

  • Lead Ocean Algorithm Developer, WindSat Microwave Radiometer, On-site, Naval Research Laboratory:
  • Pre-launch: Transformed initial Optimal Estimation retrieval algorithm for sea surface temperature, wind vector, and columnar water vapor into Fortran90 research grade code; increased efficiency 70 fold, added cloud liquid water retrieval, and improved performance substantially. Developed retrieval simulation test bed: developed simulation of WindSat measurements using NCEP analyses for scene data, and authored IDL retrieval error analysis tools for improved characterization of algorithm performance. Provided technical support and oversight for development of improved atmospheric radiative transfer code for full forward model. Developed one layer atmospheric model for retrieval algorithm forward model. Trained incoming scientific staff in microwave ocean measurement simulation, and forward model and retrieval algorithm development. Worked with FNMOC (customer) to develop requirements for operational algorithm, and defined architecture, external data needs and quality control flags. Managed effort to convert research grade code to operational code, and co-developed QC flags.

  • Post-launch: Led effort to develop empirical non-linear regression retrieval algorithms to produce a-priori data for Optimal Estimation algorithm. Generated monthly salinity climatology and temporal and spatial interpolation software. Demonstrated need for retrieval forward model to include scattering of downwelling atmospheric radiation from non-specular directions into the beam ("Omega effect") by showing improvement in water vapor and wind speed retrievals. Maintained two-scale model of ocean surface emissivity for full forward model, and managed effort by Ohio State EE professor to improve speed of two-scale model, and add determination of Omega. Added Omega effect to simulation test bed and Optimal Estimation retrieval code. Developed an ultra-fast wind direction algorithm, useful for demonstrating the full capabilities of the sensor prior to completion of Calibration/Validation, based on a combination empirical regression / closed-form analytic Maximum Likelihood Estimator: performance is unaffected by static constant, linear, or quadratic errors in the brightness temperature measurements. Gave briefings to FNMOC and at Science Team meetings, and presentations at professional conferences. Provided assistance to those developing sea foam coverage and emissivity models and snow/ice retrieval algorithms.
  • Scientist, Satellite Oceanography, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), Santa Rosa CA, 1997-2001

  • Conical Scanning Microwave Imager Sounder (CMIS), Boeing Satellite Systems, Inc. (BSS): Subcontractor through Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., during sensor/algorithm development and government downselect period for this NPOESS radiometer.
  • Environmental Data Record (EDR): Simulated polarimetric microwave brightness temperatures (TBs) using RSS ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model (RTM). Developed CMIS EDR retrieval algorithms (physical and regression) for sea surface temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and wind stress. Quantified EDR algorithm performance using simulated TBs. Optimized EDR algorithm performance through channel set, feed layout, scan geometry, noise, and other sensor trades. Supported EDR requirement and sensor design changes, and RTM development.
  • Sensor Data Record (SDR): Developed equations for fully polarimetric (4 Stokes parameter) cross-polarization matrix for CMIS antenna. Advised BSS on computing cross-polarization matrix from antenna measurements. Derived expressions for and developed code to simulate Faraday rotation (FR) and sensor errors (polarization rotation, earth incidence angle, and cross-polarization). Designed, coded, and tested robust SDR algorithm for FR and sensor error corrections. Combined FR and sensor error simulation with SDR algorithm to create end-to-end radiometric simulation.
  • Environmental Factors, Sensor Error Requirements, and Calibration: Coupled end-to-end radiometric simulation with EDR algorithms to determine EDR error sensitivity to knowledge of FR and sensor errors. Derived knowledge requirements from sensitivity analyses (flowed EDR requirements to sensor requirements). Adapted on-orbit calibration methods and simulated effect of calibration on CMIS SDRs and EDRs.
  • Program Management: Documented sensor trades and sensor error requirements. Gave presentations at six government reviews. Co-authored Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) for SDR correction algorithms and principal author on ATBD for EDR algorithms. Coordinated CMIS work at RSS. Managed contacts and information requests from government, sub- and prime contractors. Worked closely with BSS engineers on sensor optimization. Developed work plans, schedules, and cost estimates for contractors.

  • Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (ADEOS-II AMSR):
  • Packaged sea surface temperature, wind speed, and water vapor retrieval algorithms and managed delivery to NASDA, Japan. Represented RSS at Third ADEOS-II AMSR Workshop (algorithm competition) and Joint Science Team Meeting in Tokyo, Japan.
  • Search Volunteer, Supernova Cosmology Project, Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1997

  • High Redshift Supernova Search: Under the direction of Saul Perlmutter, assisted colleagues from graduate work in their search for supernovae at cosmological distances, for a new, independent determination of the density of the universe and Einstein cosmological constant. Flat-fielded and archived incoming CCD images from a multitude of large telescopes. Operated supernova detection software, verified detections, and communicated supernova candidates and photometry to observatory staffs. Developed selection criteria for follow-up spectroscopy of supernova candidates.
  • Independent Project (Contractor), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1996

  • Urban Climate Change: Under loose supervision of Dr. Art Rosenfeld at DOE HQ (now California Energy Commissioner), performed historical analysis of climate records for Los Angeles County. Identified Cooperative Network stations with more than 45 years of operation, and downloaded NCDC temperature data. Determined linear trends in monthly mean extremal temperatures, and assessed their statistical significance. Characterized patterns of climate change with respect to local climatology and geography. Compared findings with the literature. Authored report of findings.
  • Post Doctoral Fellow/Energy Policy Analyst, Heat Island Group, Energy Analysis Program, Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1994 - 1996
  • Data Sources for Heat Island Research: Performed World Wide Web and literature searches, and polled climatological community to identify existing and new sources of climate data (air quality, utility, and agricultural weather networks) for urban heat island research; co-authored publication of results. Performed spatial analysis of diurnal temperature profiles for 11 stations around Reno, Nevada. Analyzed monthly mean temperature trends 1955-1985 for Los Angeles and Washington D.C. stations; prepared technical note of findings.
  • Urban Microclimates: Conducted an experiment to measure microclimate impact of urban landscape features. Performed data analysis, identified diurnal signals of features, and used findings to refine protocol for measurement of neighborhood-scale temperatures. Prepared peer-reviewed publication of findings.
  • Impact of High Albedo Surfaces: Designed, prepared, and executed an experiment to measure air temperature gradients over a high albedo surface; analyzed data, and prepared a technical note of findings.
  • Cool Roofing Materials: Prepared and measured spectral reflectivity of roofing material samples using a spectrophotometer. Reduced data to mean solar reflectance, and analyzed as a function manufacturing parameters. Championed improvement of sample preparation and measurement procedure. Developed concept phase of an on-line database for cool roofing materials.
  • Graduate Student Research Assistant, Astrophysics Group, Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1985 - 1994

  • Berkeley Automated Supernova Search, 1985 - 1994: Developed and implemented scientific strategies to select target galaxies, monitor search performance, and reject false detections. Responsibilities included: training and supervising observing staff, scheduling observations, troubleshooting automated telescope control software and electronics, developing software to automate nightly telescope calibration functions, querying observation database, tuning image analysis code, verifying and reporting supernova candidates, supernova photometry, integration, testing, and calibration of new CCD imaging devices. Participated directly in the discovery of 20 supernovae.
  • Infrared Search for Supernovae in IRAS Galaxies, 1992: Participated in design and implementation of the test-of-concept search system. Observed galaxies using NICMOS detector and 40 inch telescope. Developed image cleaning algorithms and adapted image analysis and supernova detection software from the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search.

    Conical Scanning Microwave Imager Sounder and Microwave Imager Sounder:
    1. "Spurious 3rd and 4th Stokes Signals ('Shadowing') In Polarimetric Microwave Radiometry Over the Oceans: Origin, Characteristics, and Mitigation", Craig Smith and David Thompson, International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium 2008 (IGARSS’08) , 6-11 July 2008; Boston, MA.
    2. "Shadowing of 3rd and 4th Stokes Signals in Polarimetric Microwave Radiometry", Craig Kenton Smith, David Thompson, Peter W. Gaiser, William Johnston, Michael H. Bettenhausen, International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium 2006 (IGARSS’06) 31 July - 04 Aug 2006; Denver, CO.

    3. "A Statistical Approach to WindSat Ocean Retrievals", Craig K. Smith, Peter W. Gaiser, Patrick C. Crane, Laurence Connor International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium 2004 (IGARSS’04), Anchorage, AK.
    4. "A Physical Algorithm for WindSat Ocean/Atmosphere Retrievals", Craig K. Smith, Michael Bettenhausen, Richard M. Bevilacqua, Magdalena D. Anguelova, Nai-Yu Wang, Peter W. Gaiser, International Geoscience & Remote Sensing Symposium 2004 (IGARSS’04), Anchorage, AK.
    5. "The WindSat Ocean/Atmosphere Retrieval Algorithm: Methodology and Results", Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, July 2002, Cambridge, MA.

    Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (Ocean EDR Algorithms)
    6. "Remote Sensing Systems AMSR Ocean Algorithm Suite", Third ADEOS-II AMSR Workshop, Earth Observation Research Center, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo, November 1998.

    Berkeley Automated Supernova Search
    7. "A New Determination of the Supernova Rate for the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search", 184th American Astronomical Society Meeting, Minneapolis, June 1994.
    8. "Type Ib and Ic Supernova Light Curve Templates and the Determination of SN Ibc Rates" (poster session), 182nd American Astronomical Society Meeting, Berkeley, June 1993.
    9. "The State of the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search and Supernova Rates Derived from the Search", Automated Photoelectric Telescope Workshop IV, Tucson, November 1991.
    10. "Recent Advances in the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search: The Introduction of a Real-time System", Ninth Annual Fairborn- Smithsonian- IAPPP Symposium: "Automatic Small Telescopes", Tucson, February 1988.


    NPOESS Microwave Imager Sounder (MIS), NPOESS Integrated Program Office, Silver Spring MD
    1. "Sensor Parameter Data Workbook, and Current EDR Performance & Issues", Combined Microwave Performance Team Meeting VII and Algorithm Development Team Architecture Meeting III, September 16, 2010.
    2. "Questions for MIS Algorithm Developer Team" [SDR parameters and relative order of resampling and sensor error corrections], Algorithm Development Team Architecture Meeting II, May 20, 2010.
    3. "Development of EDR Preprocessor [Resampling and Sensor Error Corrections] Requirements", Microwave Performance Team Meeting V, November 12, 2009.
    4. "EDR Performance, Requirements Modification, and Path Forward", Microwave Performance Team Meeting IV, February 4, 2009.
    5. "MIS Driving EDRs Error Budget Analyses", Microwave Performance Team Meeting IV, February 4, 2009.
    6. "MIS EDR Performance Analysis", Dan Walker and Craig Smith, NPOESS Microwave Operational Algorithm Team Technical Interchange Meeting, January 30, 2009.
    7. "MIS EDR Performance Estimation and EDR Error Budget Design Overview", Microwave Performance Team Meeting III, November 12, 2008.
    8. "Status of MIS Performance Definition: EDR Accuracy Precision and Uncertainty Assessment and Trades", Microwave Performance Team Meeting II, September 17, 2008.
    9. "Status of Sensor Performance Definition and Milestones for EDR APU Determination", Microwave Performance Team Meeting I, July 31, 2008.
    10. "Resampling and Noise Reduction Factors for MIS", Algorithm Pathfinder Meeting, IGS, November 15, 2007.
    11. "Discussion – Key Sensor Parameters and EDR Performance Estimation Methodology", Algorithm Pathfinder Meeting, IGS, November 15, 2007.
    12. "MIS System Trade Studies, Status and Summary: Swath Width / Earth Incidence Angle / EDR Performance Mega-Trade", Algorithm Pathfinder Meeting, IGS, November 14, 2007.
    13. "Swath Width and Revisit Time & EIA and EDR Performance Trade Studies" (Update and Final Results), NPOESS Joint Algorithm Requirements Group Technical Interchange Meeting IV, September 6, 2007.
    14. "Swath Width and Revisit Time & EIA and EDR Performance Trade Studies", NPOESS Joint Algorithm Requirements Group Technical Interchange Meeting III, July 6, 2007.
    15. "MIS Swath Width and Revisit Time Trade: Effect of Swath Width on Revisit Time, EDR Performance, EDR Risk, Mass, and Cost", NPOESS Microwave Operational Algorithm Team Technical Interchange Meeting, June 27, 2007.

    WindSat (Ocean EDR Algorithm Development)
    16. "Wind Vector Retrieval Using Empirical Regressions Fed to a Maximum Likelihood Estimator", WindSat Retrieval Algorithm Competition, Washington DC, July 2004.
    17. "Wind Vector Retrieval Using Empirical Regressions, Update", WindSat Modeling and Retrieval Workshop, Washington DC, May 2004.
    18. "Wind Vector Retrieval Using Empirical Regressions", WindSat Modeling and Retrieval Workshop, Washington DC, February 2004.
    19. "Modeling of Reflected Down-welling Atmospheric Radiation: The Omega Factor", WindSat Modeling and Retrieval Workshop, Washington DC, February 2004.
    20. "WindSat Ocean/Atmosphere Retrieval Algorithms: Recent Advances and Development of the Operational Environmental Data Record Process", WindSat Science Team Meeting, Solomons Island, Maryland, June 2003.
    21. "The WindSat Ocean/Atmosphere Retrieval Algorithms: Methodology and Results", WindSat Science Team Meeting, Arlington VA, November 2002.
    22. "WindSat EDRP: Code Architecture and External Data Requirements", FNMOC/NRL Monterey, February 2002.

    Conical Scanning Microwave Imager Sounder (Ocean Algorithm Suite, SDR Algorithms, Calibration)
    23, 24, 25. "Ocean Algorithm Suite", "Sensor Error Requirements", "On-orbit Calibration Methodology", Preliminary Design Review, Los Angeles, February 2001.
    26, 27. "Ocean Algorithm Suite", "Sensor Error Requirements", Preliminary Design Supplementary Review, Los Angeles, October 2000.
    28. "Ocean Algorithm Suite", Interim Design Review, Los Angeles, January 2000.
    29, 30. "Ocean Retrieval Algorithms", "Derivation of Fully Polarimetric Antenna Cross-polarization Matrix", System Functional Review, Los Angeles, May 1999.
    31. Technical Interchange Meeting (Swath Width Investigation & Analysis), Los Angeles, January 1999.
    32. System Requirements Review, Los Angeles, October 1998.


    1. A Nonlinear Optimization Algorithm for WindSat Wind Vector Retrievals , M. H. Bettenhausen, C. K. Smith, R. M. Bevilacqua, N.-Y. Wang, P. W. Gaiser, and S. Cox, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 597-610, Mar. 2006.
    doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2005.862504

    2. A Statistical Approach to WindSat Ocean Surface Wind Vector Retrieval , C. K. Smith, M. Bettenhausen, and P. W. Gaiser, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. , vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 164-168, Jan. 2006.
    doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2005.860661

    3. WindSat Ground Data Processing and Wind Retrieval Algorithm , P. W. Gaiser, D. Richardson, C. K. Smith, N.-Y. Wang, R. M. Bevilacqua, 2003 OCEANS Marine Tech. Soc./ IEEE Conference Proceedings , Sept 22-26, 2003, San Diego CA
    doi: 10.1109/OCEANS.2003.178554

    4. WindSat Atmospheric Forward Model Comparisons , N.-Y. Wang, P. S. Chang, R. M. Bevilacqua, C. K. Smith, P. Gaiser, IEEE International Geosci. Remote Sens. Symposium , vol. 1, pp. 556-557, 2002, toronto canada june 24-28,
    doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2002.1025104.

    5. Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) for the Conical-Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS) Environmental Data Records (EDRs), Volume 14: Ocean EDR Algorithm Suite , Craig K. Smith, Frank Wentz, and Thomas Meissner, Remote Sensing Systems Technical Report No. 011001, Version 2.0, 15 March 2001.

    6. ATBD for the Conical-Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS), Volume 17: Temperature Data Record and Sensor Data Record Algorithms , Michael Plonski (AER, Inc.) and Craig Smith (Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.), Version 2.0, 15 March 2001.

    7. Existing Climate Data Sources and Their Use in Heat Island Research, B. Pon, D.M. Kurn, C. K. Smith, H. Akbari, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report, LBL-41973, 1999.

    8. Microclimate Effects Near the Ground in the Suburban Environment (Abstract), C. K. Smith, S. E. Bretz, and H. Akbari, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report, LBL-37876, June 1996.

    9. Supernova Rates for the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search Using V and R Band Light Curves, C. K. Smith, Ph.D. Dissertation, UC Berkeley, December 1994.

    10. Photometric and Spectroscopic Observations of SN 1990E in NGC1035--Observational Constraints for Models of Type II Supernovae, B.P. Schmidt, R.P. Kirshner, R. Schild, B. Leibungut, and others, Astronomical Journal, 105, pp. 2236-2250, June, 1993.

    11. High Rate for Type Ic Supernovae, R.A. Muller, H.J. Marvin-Newberg, C.R. Pennypacker, S. Perlmutter, T.P. Sasseen, C.K. Smith, Ap. J. Lett., 384, L9-L13, January 1, 1992.

    12. Progress and New Directions for the Berkeley Supernova Search, S. Perlmutter, H. J. Marvin, R. A. Muller, C.R. Pennypacker, T.P. Sasseen, and C.K. Smith in Supernovae, S.E. Woosley, ed., pp. 727-730, Springer-Verlag (1991).

    13. Preliminary Estimates of the Core-collapse Supernova Rates from the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search, C.R. Pennypacker, S. Perlmutter, R.A. Muller, E. Hamilton, C.K. Smith, T.P. Sasseen, S. Carlson, H. J. Marvin, L-P. Wang, F. Crawford, R. Treffers, and S. Bludman, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report, LBL-30590, and published in the Proceedings of the Supernova Watch Workshop, Los Angeles, CA, November 26- 27, 1990.

    14. A Search for Nemesis; Current Status and Review of Theory, S. Perlmutter, R.A. Muller, C.R. Pennypacker, C.K. Smith, L.P. Wang, S. White, H.S. Yang, in Global Catastrophes in Earth History, an Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality, Virgil L. Sharpton, editor, pp.87-91, Geological Society of America (1990).

    15. The First Year (almost) of Real-Time Automated Operation of the Berkeley Supernova Search, S. Perlmutter, F. Crawford, H.J. Marvin, R.A. Muller, C.R. Pennypacker, T. Sasseen, C.K. Smith, L.P. Wang, in Particle Astrophysics: Forefront Experimental Issues, E.B. Norman editor, pp. 196-197, World Scientific (1989).

    16. Automated Supernova Discoveries: Status of the Berkeley Project, C.R. Pennypacker, F. Crawford, H.J. Marvin, R.A. Muller, S. Perlmutter, T. Sasseen, C.K. Smith, R. Treffers, R. Williams, L.P. Wang, in Particle Astrophysics: Forefront Experimental Issues, E.B. Norman editor, pp. 188-189, World Scientific (1989).

    17. Observation of the Type II Supernova in M99, C.R. Pennypacker, M.S. Burns, F.S. Crawford, P.G. Friedman, J.R. Graham, J.T. Kare, R. A. Muller, S. Perlmutter, C.K. Smith, R.R. Treffers, R.W. Williams, G. Basri, J. Bixler, A.V. Filippenko, C. Foltz, D.R. Garnett, R.P. Harkness, V. Junkkarinen, R. Kennicutt, P.J. McCarthy, H. Spinrad, J.C. Wheeler, H. Willick, B.J. Wills, Astronomical Journal 97, 186-193, plate p.313 (January 1989).

    18. Recent Advances in the Berkeley Automated Supernova Search: The Introduction of a Real-Time System, C.K. Smith, F. Crawford, R.A. Muller, C. Pennypacker, S. Perlmutter, T. Sasseen, R. Williams, R. Treffers in Automatic Small Telescopes, ed. D.S. Hayes and R. M. Genet, pp. 46-64 Fairborn Observatory Press (1988).

    19. The Status of Berkeley's Real-time Supernova Search, S. Perlmutter, F.S. Crawford, R.A. Muller, C.R. Pennypacker, T.P. Sasseen, C.K. Smith, R. Treffers, and R. Williams, in Instrumentation for Ground-Based Optical Astronomy, Conference Proceeding, Santa Cruz 1987, pp. 674-680 (1988).


    Operating Systems: UNIX, Windows
    Languages: Fortran 95/90, C
    Analysis: IDL, MatLab, Excel
    Web: HTML


    Phi Beta Kappa
    Sigma Pi Sigma


    American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Section
    IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society
    American Meteorological Society


  • Finalist, American Institute of Physics (AIP) Congressional Science Fellowship, 1997: Prepared position paper and presentation for mock congressional briefing (with AIP panel) on the listing process of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Identified and defined scope of problem using Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports and issue briefs. Used National Research Council (NRC) publications, academic journals, and public opinion research to formulate potential solutions. Spoke with members of NRC Committee on Science Issues in the ESA, CRS staff, and Fish and Wildlife Service listing teams to assess efficacy and practicality of potential solutions. Gave briefing in Washington DC.
  • Caltrans Interstate 80 Expansion at Emeryville California, 1992: Studied draft environmental impact report for a freeway expansion affecting the Emeryville Crescent Wetland. Performed an observational experiment to determine the primary causes of traffic congestion in the I-80 corridor. Photo-documented avian species and their behavior at the wetland. Reported findings at public hearings of the Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC), and presented alternatives addressing causes of congestion while allowing the wetland to remain intact. Authored follow-up report. Spoke in person with Commission staff regarding wetland mitigation requirements, and by phone with members of the Regional Water Quality Control Board, which also had jurisdiction. (Due to the input of many citizens, BCDC developed a compromise solution utilizing elevated ramps over the wetland.)

    The Feinstein Test, Opinion, San Francisco Chronicle, October 5, 1994
    Habitat Loss is Lethal, Opinion, San Francisco Chronicle, August 30, 1994